Monday, December 11, 2006

Lama tak mengisi..

Aduh,,maaf ya blog ku sayang..
aku lama tak mengisi dirimu..
habisnya tugas banyak banget sih..
udah gitu bentar lagi ujian lagi..

Mau curhat ni..
Tadi pagi baru aja kelar nyelesain tugas RI bersama si abang Reyhan, abang Jamak dan bang Nashir..
sebenernya kita tadi matching lho..cuma si Nashir aja yang ga samaan warna ma kita..
Tapi Shir, lo tetep matching kok..

Senangnya tugas kelar satu, PKI pun bagianku juga udah kelar..
senang..tinggal menunggu bagian si Dian..
senang lagi..soalnya abis asistensi SI tadi bagianku ga ada yang perlu diubah..cuma bagian Dini ma Mia..asyikk...
tugas tinggal dikit..

list tugas ah..
1. Makalah RI, spek baru keluar tanggal 18 tapi udah tau sih tentang apa
2. Makalah MBK, launch baru besok buat minggu depan
3. Tugas SI, masih lama..tanggal 5..hohoho..

tuh kan cuma tiga..biasanya lebih dari lima..senang..

tapi ada satu lagi ni yang ditakutin..bahan IB banyak banget..harus mulai nyticil dari sekarang ni..

yasudah deh..segitu aja..

ntar kapan-kapan ngisi lagi..

Sunday, November 12, 2006

Open Source Software and Important Today

The Internet in just a few years radically has changed the technical foundation of information supply chain. Within that, the movement of open source software was increased too. Open Source enable diverse production models, communication paths, and interactive communities. It has become an accepted software development model that has proven that it can usually deliver code that is more reliable at lower cost than proprietary development methods. Software which delivered with open source methodology were more reliable because it revealed the source which many people can review it and update it as long as fulfill the agreement. By revealed the source code will grant us a high security trusted software, if we have enough skill we should see what the program do, if we can’t fix the problem or we see a suspicious code we can ask someone else that we trust. As the example, the problem of Linux operating system can be fixing in a few hours as the problem found. Using the open system software, it is just not like buying a cat in a sack.
Open Source describes practices in production and development that promote access to the product’s source materials (source codes). The open source model allows any user to view and modify a product's source code. The idea of open source is then to eliminate the access costs of the consumer and the creator by reducing the restrictions of copyright. This will lead to creation of additional works, which build upon previous work and add to greater social benefit. The open source model can allow for the concurrent use of different agendas and approaches in production, in contrast with more centralized models of development such as those typically used in commercial software companies "Open source" as applied to culture defines a culture in which fixations are made generally available. Participants in such a culture are able to modify those products and redistribute them back into the community. Organizations and individuals that adhere to this model believe that the benefit that they gain from improvements to their software provided by the community of software developers is more important then protecting their competitive advantage.

Why Making Open Sources?
Open Source was developed because of the needs, satisfy, popularity, and money. Open Source Software (OSS) comes up because there is no a suitable software for our needs. The needs of security and integrity make some programmers develop their software as open source. Sometimes programmers develop software because they love it and become the proof of their intellectuality. Good and interesting open source software will make many programmers interesting joining the project, which will make the creator more popular. Even open source usually doesn’t give the creator a direct benefit but by making a lot of open source software or joining the project will making someone improve their self value, which will help them joining a company. If the OSS we created were used by many companies that it will grant us a chance to build a software service company.

Recent Advances
Open Source Software are becoming not just an alternative software solutions but alsotake a main part of global software development Open Source Software doesn’t provide the creator with direct profits Within the phenomenon’s, there should be regulation of standard and quality of service open source provided.The competition open source and close source development. People who don’t have a great skill in computer will rather choose the close source than an open source.Indonesia open source movement tried to handle the serious software piracy problems by using the open source software (OSS) as the exchange of limited software.

Open Source Today
Things that will be explained in this paper :
- What is the real phenomenon about Open Source that happen now?
- What is exactly the benefit of making Open Source for the developer?
- Is there any global regulation that controls the development of Open Source?
- How Open Source distribute its products all over the world?
- Is there any disadvantage from Open Source?
- How Open Source develop in Indonesia?

Author :
13504021 Dian Syahfitra
13504031 Gahayu Handari Ekaputri

Virtual Organization

Over the past decade, global competition, changing customer demands, environmental uncertainty, and rapidly evolving technologies have forced organizations to reassess their basic function and structure. The state of technology development has increased exponentially as computers and robots have entered the workplace. One of the effects of these is managers should manage effectively in changing and ill-defined organization structures. The structure of an organization consists of relatively fixed and stable relationships among jobs. The main purpose of organization structure is to influence the behavior of individuals and groups to achieve effective performance.

There are two theories that study management and organization design depending upon the degree of environmental uncertainty. The idea of these designs is an organization structure that enables customers to access its services can be applied at the subunit level as well as the overall organizational level. First is mechanistic design. In this theory, the characteristics of organization structure are highly specialized jobs, homogeneous departments, narrow spans of control, and relatively centralized authority. These characteristic assumptions are found in the historical circumstances within which this theory developed. Examples for such organization are banks, insurance firms, and airlines. Mechanistic designs provide appropriate mechanisms for integrating activities of relatively undifferentiated functions. Another alternative theory is organic design. This theory proposes that a more effective organization has relatively despecialized jobs, heterogeneous departments, wide spans of control, and decentralized authority. These organization structures achieve not only high levels of production and efficiency but also satisfaction, adaptiveness, and development. Examples for such organization are medical care, legal advice, and higher education. These organizations are better to integrate the activities of highly differentiated activities because organic structures provide the flexibility required to deal with the highly uncertain environment that is characteristic of customer demanding quite different services and desiring to play an active part in their delivery. We cannot choose one of these theories as a “best-way” theory. Rather, the manager must adopt the point of view that either the mechanistic or the organic design is more effective for total organization or for subunits within its organization.

One of the fastest developing practices in business throughout involves firms in cooperative relationships with their supplies, distributors, and even competitors. This kind of relationship is called “virtual organization”. Virtual organizations achieve both efficiency and flexibility by establishing networks of relationships with a variety of groups including suppliers, distributors, customers, strategic alliance partners, and even competitors. This relationship enables organization to rely upon smaller, closer to the market partner to sense impending changes in the environment and to respond at the local level.

There are three generic types of accounts available on virtual organizations in the literature. The first one is on organizations that out-source some of their business activities, forming virtual alliances to achieve organizational objectives. Such virtual organizations may be formed by integrating several companies’ core competencies and resources. A virtual company, then, is a collection of several companies organized to behave as if it were a larger, multifaceted organization. Chesbrough and Teece analyzed the practice of businesses in the market place and discussed the problems and concerns with firms going virtual. According to Harrington’s book entitled ‘Organizational Structure and Information Technology’, the second description of virtual organization is related to perceptual organization that is “abstract, unseeing, and existing within the minds of those who form a particular organization”. The third type description is organizations that are built up by virtual links with information technology.

The uncertainty situation nowadays, due to changes in business environment, forces the organization to be more flexible and adaptable. Currently, independent organization are often no longer in a state of being able to provide the desired products or qualities. This need for flexibility can only be guaranteed by several interdependent organizations which react promptly to the customer’s demands. Cooperation between those independent organizations shall be maintained in the form of a network type of virtual organization. This collaboration can be held through the collaboration of core competencies and working methods that the participating parties have. In another word, the participants in a virtual organization complement each others’ competencies and resources in order to complete the customer’s demand. An example of a successful virtual organization is the famous internet store known as “Earth Biggest Bookstore”, Amazon (www.amazon.com). This book firm offers an enormous selection of books that can be searched through several kinds of queries: title, author, description, and ordered via internet with supports from many credit card vendors such as VISA, MasterCard, etc. Actually, this firm is virtual and owns no single book itself. It manages a direct connection with several large publishers to supply customer’s order on desired book. This means that the firm manages no stock, no store, minimal personnel, and minimized logistics.

There are several advantages that virtual organization can offer. The greatest one lies in the fact that it eliminates the physical boundaries of organizations, and that cross-functional teams and organizations are able to operate and collaborate across space and time by communicating with each other via electronic channels. The Internet becomes the most important interface between participating organizations, teams and individuals. Virtual organization also allows businesses to sell and deliver products and services across the world in the most efficient way. For example, www.gramedia.com, an online bookstore from Indonesia, helps people from different city in Indonesia to buy a book from them without going to the store directly and they will send the books directly to the customer’s house. Virtual organization may perceive greater business opportunities since it has an expanded geographical coverage that enables them to get a broader market. This phenomenon lies in the fact that customers of Gramedia bookstore don’t only come from big cities anymore but also from small cities, since www.gramedia.com provides services for customers from small cities. Better market understanding is another benefit of virtual organization, since the customer will get the product exactly as he wants it and almost immediately. Customer will have the joy to acquire almost perfect quality and good service. This will give a virtual organization the edge over its competitors. In virtual organizations, team members do not necessarily need to be in the same location and might not meet physically. A good example is engineering companies who have different sites around the world to do work 24 hours a day. They are taking advantage of the time zones. For example, when the shift in Europe finishes, the work is passed to the team members in the United States. It will reduce cost and time. Another advantage of virtual organization is better management information and better integration of suppliers and vendors. When the virtual organization can reduce its product cost, it will have more chances on the market thus the supplier will be able to sell more products to his client. Therefore, the supplier will be happy to continue working with the company. Vendors are something valuable. They promote and explain the products. This helps to grow with the customer and fulfilling his demands even better. Feedback is a very important thing to increase quality and customer satisfaction. With virtual organization, the vendor and the supplier are integrated together. The information transformation and flow between them are collected and arranged well in virtual organization. Therefore, the company will work more efficiently.

Although virtual organization has many advantages such as reducing the cost, being able not to pay the infrastructure, or becoming an umbrella organization, the virtual organization has some weaknesses, not from the concepts but they come from the theories itself. Virtual organization is lack of appropriate theories. It usually runs itself without the needs of formal theories. Another weakness is inconsistent paradigm, and lack of formal modeling tools [L. M. Camarinha-Matos, 2004]. Other considered disadvantage is hard to determine how the relationships between components in virtual organization should be organized. Organizing the customers, suppliers, employers, etc need great efforts and a lot of evaluations. This process can consume more time. Virtual organization itself should be aware of dynamic changes of global economy, this also need proper system to design.
Those disadvantages above can be reduced within time and experiences. The theories of virtual organization develop within time. P. Sieber and J. Griese mention in their paper abstract2 that virtual organization is a goal-oriented enterprise (i.e. unit or function within a company) operating under metamanagement. Metamanagement characterizes the management of a virtually organized task. A virtually organized task is a goal oriented activity that is implemented by an appropriate assignment or reassignment of concrete satisfiers to the abstract requirements of a task. (switching is the process of assignment and reassignment.). That statement supports that virtual organization focus on the goal not the process. The other theories we should start a virtual community than build the virtual organization to reach the virtual enterprise. In order to understand a virtual organization some expert use the theories in other discipline such as multi agent system, complexity theories, self-organizing systems, graph theory, network analysis, game theory, formal engineering methods, etc.
In order to create a well-organized and well-managed virtual organization we need to model it first. Creating a realistic model of virtual organization is a very hard work. Modeling is a very suitable means to aid designing, communicating, and implementing virtual organizations3. There are some model approaches such as management model (framework model, concepts model), management oriented process model, system requirement model, and enacted model. Management models depict the core concepts and elements of the (virtual) organization. They usually set the frame of reference or high-level architecture of the VO, and thus support understanding and discussing the main principles. Nowadays, some tools are supporting the modeling process in virtual organization although they cannot always satisfy the developers. Those are the VSD (Value System Designer), CIMOSA (CIM Open System Architecture), GERAM, etc. Creating model in virtual organization need some steps, that are: developing business architecture for VO or adopting it from reference models, detailing processes and roles to a level sufficient for employees or researchers to understand (and operate in) new organization, and detailing processes, data requirements and views for system development or system enactment2. By creating a good model we can create a well organized virtual organization. This model will also help us on following the world changes well.

To sum up, virtual organization as one of the fastest developing practices in business offers us flexibility and adaptability. This virtual organization, which isn’t able to be seen, forms virtual alliances to achieve organizational objectives, exists within the minds of those who form the organization, and it is built up by virtual links with information technology. Virtual organization offers us a lot of benefits such as eliminating physical boundaries of organizations through electronic channels, efficient in delivering products and services, expanding business coverage, better market understanding, 24-hour business a day, and reducing products cost. It has also some disadvantages, such as lack of appropriate theories and formal modeling tools, inconsistent paradigm, and hard to organize the components’ relationships in a virtual organization. Despite of its disadvantages, virtual organization is still considered a great prospect in business, especially in the future. By creating a good realistic model of virtual organization, a well organized virtual organization can be developed and the disadvantages can be reduced within time and experiences.

References
(1) Harrington, J. (1991) Organizational Structure and Information Technology, New York : Prentice Hall.(2) Sieber, P. and Griese, J.. 1999. Organizational Virtualness and Electronic Commerce Proceedings of the 2nd International VoNet – Workshop Zurich, September 23-24, 1999 Simowa Verlag Bern.http;//virtual-organization.net(3) Loeh, Hermann, Chunyan Zhang, and Bernhard Katzy. Modeling for Virtual Organizations http://www.cetim.org/wps
Anggota Kelompok:1. Dian Syahfitra (13504021)2. Gahayu Handari E. (13504031)3. Morenvino (13504034)4. Ray Aditya Iswara (13504045)5. Anton Rifco Susilo (13504046)6. Dani (13504060)7. Stevens Jethefer (13504080)8. Anthony Hertanto (13504102)9. Nicolas Andres (13504109)10. Christopher Kurniawan (13504117)

Process Paragraph

Producing Gas from Household Waste

There are several steps in extracting gas from household waste. First, household waste goes into warming bed. In here, the waste that still can be made as fertilizer then go to the fertilizer pipe, and the other, which is consist of methane and dirt, then go to the next step, dirt trap. Dirt trap is a place where the dirt can be extracted from the waste. Then the dirt moves to the release cap. On the other side, the extracted methane enters the next phase, Gas Indicator. In here, methane mingles with water in a big container. This process will create the methane bubble, which will continue the following step. If methane bubble’s pressure is too high, it will go to the step for releasing the pressure. The methane bubble comes to top-open-container that already filled with water. If the pressure is normal, the methane bubble will continue its journey to the last step, Gas holder. In here, the methane will keep in a big storage, called Inner tubes that have weight on top to increase the gas’ pressure. You can get the gas by simply turn the gas tap. From now on, the gas is ready to be used.

Sewage Disposal Unit

There are three stages in sewage disposal unit. First, the sewage comes from main sewer to the Settling Tank. In here, the sewage is mixed with the water, produce polluted water and undecayed solids. Then the undecayed solids is removed and burned. The polluted water then comes to the next step, which is Pump House. On this step, the polluted water flows to the next place through the pipes. The last place is Sprinkler Beds. Then jet of polluted water stream to the rotating arms. After that, the water is filtered of stones and microorganism to produce the purified water. Finally, the purified water flows to the river.

Jakarta, the unique city

Used to be a small harbor in the edge of Ciliwung River, Jakarta now becomes one of metropolitan city with high density of people. In 1964, Jakarta got a privilege to be the capital city of Indonesia. Hence, many people from different place in Indonesia come to Jakarta for seeking a better life. Jakarta rapidly becomes a crowded city with many interesting phenomenon inside, such as its social life and its traditional culture. Those phenomenons make Jakarta as a unique city.

We can see many skyscraper buildings like apartment and mall in Jakarta. Living in apartment becomes a new lifestyle that grows in Jakarta. Practicality, its facilities, and less of living place in Jakarta makes people choose to live in an apartment. In contrast, there are many dirty-and-vile-apartments in Ciliwung River side. It is just so ironic. This is a view of Jakarta where we can find different kind of people, from millionaire to destitute. We can find lot of malls in Jakarta. Yet, those malls are the right place to spend your money. To those who have not much money, they still can spend their money for shopping in Pasar Tanah Abang, great and big place to buy necessities in Central-Jakarta or in Mangga Dua, place that sell many kind of clothing. “City with A hundred malls” will be a great title for Jakarta. Moreover, night lifestyle in Jakarta just like in abroad. We can find many nightclub, bar or pub in Jakarta. For teenager, you need a big self-control to avoid fall on bad social habits, like free sex and drugs.

Jakarta also has unique culture, like its dancing, music, traditional food, and history, which can be found only in Jakarta. Topeng Blantek dancing is one example of Jakarta’s traditional dancing. It performs in special occasion like mariage and Jakarta’s birthday celebrating. Topeng Blantek is danced by some women that wearing colorfull dress and using a hat with the same colour with the dress. This dancing has a background music, we call it Gambang Kromong. Gambang Kromong, is a set of brass-made-hitted-mussical-instruments that produce a harmonize music. It is like Gamelan in Java. Another traditional music from Jakarta is Tanjidor, that consists of many kind of blown-musical-instruments. It’s ussually perform in marriage occassion.

Kerak Telor, Soto Betawi, and Roti Buaya are the example of traditional food that come from Jakarta. Kerak telor is a crust rice that cooked with an egg and served with serundeng, coconut shavings that fried without oil until become crunchy. Its taste is so delicious. We can find Kerak Telor seller when Jakarta celebrating its birthday, in Pekan Raya Jakarta, Kemayoran, Central Jakarta. We can also find Kerak Telor inside the malls, but its tase is different with the traditional one. Soto Betawi is a kind of soup with coconut milk that contains many kind of cow’s innards, tomatoes, potatoes, onion leaf and served with emping, melinjo chip. Soto Betawi can be found in many place in Jakarta, one example is in Blora, Central Jakarta. On there all the seller’s name is ”Pak Kumis”. Roti Buaya is a gigantic cake which is formed like an alligator. It is served in a marriage occassion as a gift from the groom to the bride.

Si Pitung is a heroic figure from Jakarta. He was so brave to beat the colonize, Netherlands. Pitung’s house is stangding still in Marunda, North Jakarta. That is makes his legend never died. If you want to know more about Jakarta’s history, you can go to Fatahillah Museum, in Kota, North Jakarta. You also can go to Situ Babakan in South Jakarta. It is a place for conservating Jakarta’s traditional culture. You can seee the miniatur of oldies Jakarta on there.
Eventhough Jakarta has became a metropolist city with a strong foreign culture involved in, Jakarta should hold on to its traditional culture. Jakarta’s traditional culture must be preserve from extinction. Since, this traditional culture is not only as the tied of history but also can attract foreign tourist to come to Jakarta. It is the reason why Jakarta always be an interesting destination place for traveling, and it makes Jakarta as a unique city. Moreover, I will always miss and love my Jakarta.

Monday, October 30, 2006

Selamat Lebaran

Halo semua...

sebenernya agak telat sih.. tapi gapapa..

cuma mau ngucapin..

"Selamat Lebaran.."
"Minal Aidin Wal Faidzin.."
"Mohon maaf lahir dan batin.."

Maaf ya kalao ada salah..

Wednesday, October 18, 2006

Mau Lebaran dan Liburan..

Halo..lama tak mengisi..
cuma mau bilang ..
"Selamat Liburan.."
dan yang terutama..
"Selamat Lebaran.."

Semoga kita jadiinsan yang lebih baik di Hari yang Fitri ini..
maaf ya kalau ada salah...

Sunday, October 01, 2006

Launching blog kosan..

Cuma mau memberi tau kalo blog kosan sudah dilaunching..
jadi kalo beberapa menit yang lalu baru saja dilaunch sebuah blog yang berisi tentang kisah kehidupan anak manusia yang bernaung di bawah kosan yang terletak di jalan Tubagus Ismail 8 no 27..

alamatnya di..
http://tubis8-27.blogspot.com

jadi, selamt mengisi blog kosan...

Thursday, September 28, 2006

Setiap Kamis selalu saja begini..

Hwaaa...
sebenernya ini patut disyukuri sih..
tapi tetep aja bosen..

jadi begini, sodara-sodara..
karena saya sudah mengambil mata kuliah TI4051-MAnajemen Industri.. jadinya saya tiap kamis tuh bolong..
berhubung kuliah Intelegensia Buatan ada jam 9-10 dan kuliah Information Retrieval baru jam 3 sore..
jadi saya berampas ria dari jam 10 sampe jam 3..
hiks..kan bingung tuh mau ngapain..
mana anak2 yang lain banyak yang belum ambil kuliah itu..jadi ya palingan cuma beberapa anak aja yang ada di IF..
mau maen kartu di himpunan ga ada lawan,
belajar di perpus males.. (tapi deket-deket Ujian kayaknya bakal sering kesini..gila..rajin bang-get ga sih??)
mau kerjain tugas, partner tugasnya ga ada..
ya sudah..
akhirnya kuputuskan untuk..

mengisi blog ini..

hehehehe..

Tuesday, September 26, 2006

Forest destruction and the death of the world

Forest is an essential and important part of the world life. It controls the air cycle, so that forest called as the lungs of the earth. Accordingly, forest destruction is frequently happen nowadays. This destruction inflicts a financial loss and harms the earth. However, it is not the only one reason that causing the death of the world. There are still a lot of reasons that can kill our earth.

Forest destruction, such as deforestation, illegal logging, and forest fire, cause the world damage. For example, forest fire and illegal logging that happen in Indonesia has causing Indonesia lost its forest around 72 percent [World Resource Institute, 1997]. It also make Indonesia has water deficit around 32.3 billions meter cubic each year, and make Indonesia susceptible for disasters like dryness, flood and sliding. As the lungs of the earth, forest has ability to adsorb carbon and produce oxygen for living in earth. The damage of forest can disturb the air and water cycle, which is impact to having dryness in dry season and flood in rainy season.

Even forest destruction has causing damage for the earth; it is not the only reason for causing the death of the world. There are many reasons that make our earth killed. Pollution in big city is an example of the motive. Air pollution produce excessive carbon monoxide, which is next, can cause the global warming. Global warming makes a hole in the ozone, then ozone cannot filter the sunray. People’s skin can handle the sunray then it will burn people. Fire will find anywhere if the ozone layer totally perforated, and the world is dead. Another example of the reasons that cause the death of the world is nuclear attack, and many other human activities, which does not care to the environment existence and so on.

Actually, those reasons happen because of human doing. Forest destruction also happens because of human doings. To summarize, we can conclude that forest destruction is harmful but it is not the only reason in making the earth death. There are many human activities that causing world damage. Therefore, to prevent our earth from death we should increase our awareness about our environment. We can start it by supporting global environment conservation.